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We did a search for other books with a similar title, and found some results for you that may be helpful. Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! The Industrial Heritage is the first integrated approach to the assessment, conservation, interpretation, financing and management of the complex heritage of industrial cultures. It breaks new ground, as the authors both active workers in the field suggest that concepts of heritage defined to deal with pre-industrial cultures must be modified to deal with the very different demands presented by industrial objects and the societies which produced them.

The essence of this book is practicality, offering examples of the real issues which confront those concerned with preserving and managing the industrial heritage. Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Sorry, the book that you are looking for is not available right now. Books with a similar title. Industrial Heritage: Protection and Redevelopment. In Stock.

Lycoming County's Industrial Heritage. In the United States, census statistics in and suggest that museum visiting was rapidly becoming the single most popular out of home activity. However, numbers alone do not tell the whole picture of the quality and nature of family visits, of how family members interact with each other or how they learn. Systematic widespread research using consistent techniques across a broad range of museums and interactive centres has not been undertaken, although attempts have been made to build up a holistic picture of family learning and behaviour in museums from an increasing range of small-scale evaluative studies.

Wood stresses the importance of the family visit to the long-term future of museums by emphasising that future leisure choices are more closely linked to leisure experiences begun as a child in a family visit than in an educational visit. A study in the USA showed that 60 per cent of regular museum visitors said their interest in museums had been shaped by childhood family visits, compared to only 3 per cent in school visits.

The Industrial Heritage: Managing Resources and Uses - Judith Alfrey, Tim Putnam - Google книги

Competition for leisure time and disposable income has resulted in family groups valuing the time spent together, and with outings increasingly serving to strengthen family ties. Family museum visits are rarely planned more than a day in advance, and are popular because museums provide a safe and non-threatening environment for family explorations. Several authors have commented on the ritualistic and cementing nature of museum visits. If, in addition, personal interests can be harnessed…then a museum visit can start to look like a successful outing even before it has begun.

Research has focused on family behaviour for example, group interactions, time allocation and family agenda issues and the nature of family learning. It shows that families behave in consistent ways in different museums, and that they behave differently from other groups of museum visitors.

For example, Diamond studied the teaching behaviour of families in science centres, and found that the average visit lasted just over two hours, interacting with sixty-two exhibits. Families did not read labels before interacting with the exhibits, only reading the instructions if they were unsuccessful and if their attention was held. Children were more likely than adults to manipulate exhibits, whilst parents were more likely to read labels and study graphics than children.

The research identified that visitors became more selective as they progressed through the exhibition, stopping for longer periods at fewer exhibits. McManus suggests that whilst parents are likely to select the exhibition to be explored, subsequent exploration and information-gathering is shared out between the family members. The family purposefully moves in a loose formation to explore the selected area, with children typically leading in this exploratory behaviour. As individual members encounter interesting items they report back to the family group, with parents commenting on and interpreting the information introduced by children.

Children, on the other hand, are much less likely to comment on information introduced by their parents.

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If the family is relaxed and works harmoniously as a unit, the exploration is most likely to be successful. One area where there is inconsistency, however, is in the interpretation of gender-specific behaviour. Falk and Dierking conclude that there is evidence to suggest mothers are less likely than other group members to choose the exhibits to view, and that their interactions with sons are on a higher level than with daughters. This pattern which has been described above is an assimilation of small-scale evaluative research conducted in Europe and North America, much of which relates specifically to science museums, zoos and aquaria in the USA, most of which have a significant interactive element.


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The evidence suggests that there is consistency in family behaviour, but where discrepancies do occur for example in gender-specific behaviour this may reflect cultural differences between countries—or indeed, over time—or simply the need for systematic, large-scale research across a broad range of institutions.

At present, we do not know with any certainty how families behave in interactive history or art museums, or in other parts of the world.

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One small-scale comparative study of family behaviour at the non-interactive National Palace Museum in Taiwan concluded that Chinese families do behave in similar ways to those found in the UK and USA studies. The developers of interactive exhibitions typically set out to provide a welcoming, attractive, informal, comfortable and easily understood environment conducive to gallery learning. In addition, the success of the visit is likely to be enhanced if attention is given to fundamental human comforts.

This checklist is by no means exhaustive, but it is indicative of the issues that need to be addressed to create a favourable physical context for the visit.

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Every hands-on exhibit chosen, every artefact, every structure, every label or graphic image communicates a message to the visitor. An effective exhibition requires an effective communications strategy, which includes every aspect of museum design, to help visitors make sense of their surroundings, to encourage them to interact with the exhibits, and to enhance the effectiveness of that interaction.

Visitor orientation is a vital component of the communication process. This has four elements: geographical orientation to guide the visitor, psychological orientation to stimulate the right frame of mind, intellectual orientation to encourage understanding of content, and conceptual orientation to help develop associated ideas. It follows that if the visitor is oriented geographically and psychologically, the intellectual and conceptual learning process will be facilitated.

Integrating adults and children Typically, half the visitors to interactive museums are adults. Adults play a key role in the educational success of exhibits, by assisting with the difficult task of interpreting, explaining and teaching.

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Thus, the primary role of the adult is one of mediator, and every effort should be made to ensure their physical comfort by, for example, providing ample seating, clean toilets, cafeteria, parent-and-baby facilities. Furthermore, as the key decision- makers in the family, if they have not enjoyed the visit, they may resist pressure to revisit at a later date. Adults in family groups are more likely to have a positive frame of mind if the exhibition is perceived to be designed for children. Improving the tangibility of the experience on offer begins with the image portrayed by the exhibition in its promotional material, extends to visitor orientation, and subsequently to the whole design and layout of the galleries.

The size and structure of the exhibition, the choice of materials and colour, the quality of the finish, the floor covering and the type of lighting, all identify the exhibition as being for a specific visitor segment, and determine a specific type of learning. The importance of appropriate psychological orientation cannot be overemphasised. This is manifest in the way that many adults stand back watching their children interact with exhibits, without contributing to or sharing in the learning experience.

For example, when Eureka! Orientation must be designed to encourage adults and children to share the interactive experience together. Another difficult issue is the provision of facilities for small children. The physical and learning needs of small children are very different from those of older children, and it is difficult to design exhibits that work at a multitude of levels and are simultaneously appropriate for small children.

Therefore, the problem arises of whether or not to provide separate learning spaces for children under 5. Providing a dedicated space for young children, one which caters for their learning needs and excludes larger children is an attractive proposition, but this can cause problems for families with children in different age categories. A more practical solution might be to include activities throughout the centre which are clearly identified as being appropriate to the needs of very young children. For example, if these exhibits provide a safe environment for parents to place a small child, thereby enabling them to continue to explore, this would also provide an opportunity for parents to interact with an older child at an exhibit in the same gallery.

Parents with children are naturally concerned for the security and safety of their children.


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  8. Parents will not wish to leave their children unsupervised, so exhibits for the under-5s have to be highly visible to parents and to staff working in the gallery. The design of interactive exhibits Drawing on appropriate learning theory discussed earlier in this chapter, it is highly desirable that exhibits are designed which: 1 Have direct and obvious actions and reactions. Designing hands-on exhibits is a formidable challenge: indeed, it has been suggested by an experienced designer of hands-on exhibits that it is not success that we should be aiming for, but to fail less miserably.

    Indeed, the simple ideas are often the best! It is also a mistake to incorporate interactive exhibits in every exhibition scenario: the hands- on approach is a seductive medium because of its popularity with visitors, but there are many areas where it is simply not appropriate for the story being told. The problems in creating an effective hands-on exhibit are diverse. He had two main messages for the Eureka!

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    If an action is possible, sooner or later one visitor will try it. The developers must try and anticipate this, protecting the visitor and the exhibit from any possible danger. Exhibits must be constructed to the highest possible safety standards, with guards to protect visitors from moving parts, and no sharp corners which might injure visitors. If the first rule of exhibit development is to accept that visitors will sooner or later do the unimaginable; the second rule is that if an exhibit breaks down, it is the fault of the museum rather than that of the visitor.

    Physical safety is one issue, but if failure to interact with the exhibit leads to frustration, confusion or misunderstanding, the fault lies not with the visitor but with the exhibit developer. It is highly unlikely that the design will be perfect at the first attempt, and it is common for exhibits to go through a number of amendments before reaching the final version ideally evaluated at the cheaper prototype stage before going on to the exhibition floor.

    There are many lessons to be learned: visitors do not go around exhibitions in a linear fashion, so each exhibit must stand alone and work independently from other exhibits, even if a group of exhibits are linked conceptually. The physical design of the exhibit is vitally important, since visitors come in all shapes and sizes, some with disabilities, from different cultural backgrounds and with different levels of interest and understanding. Issues such as selecting the right control for the job, accessibility for people with different disabilities, ergonomics, visibility, noise interference with adjoining exhibits, all need careful thought and evaluation.

    Choosing the right control alone can be a difficult decision. There are choices to be made between mechanical devices such as pulley wheels, levers and handles; between different types of electronic switches; and between computer trackballs, mice and touch-screens. There is no ideal solution for all applications: for example, a pulley wheel with a handle attached at the perimeter may enable the user to exert more force to operate a difficult exhibit, but this may be too powerful for another exhibit on which a dimple for a finger may be more appropriate to prevent abuse although this would be more difficult for someone with motor disabilities.

    Many factors will affect the decision, but ideally the choice of control should reinforce the exhibit concepts: for example, if the exhibit demonstrates leverage, then the ideal control will itself be a lever. If the exhibit can be removed easily to a workshop for repair, then the visitor will not be confronted by a broken exhibit. If it cannot be removed, access to internal components needs to be easy so it can be repaired in situ, which in itself can present a good teaching opportunity with a well-trained and friendly technician.

    Role of text The best hands-on exhibits are intuitive to use, and do not rely on the visitor reading complex instructions or large amounts of explanatory text. However, text and associated graphic images can play a key role in helping visitors use the exhibits. It is quite common for children to interact with an exhibit without reading any instructions, whilst their adult helpers stand back and read the labels.

    Ideally, the text should clearly outline the educational value of the activity and how the adult can enhance learning, otherwise the exhibit is fun, but of limited educational value. The assertion is often made at interactive exhibitions that visitors do not read text. Research suggests that this is too simplistic an explanation, and that whilst most families especially children interact with exhibits before reading any labels, they do go on to read the text—especially if their initial interaction is unsuccessful.

    This piecemeal selection of text underpins the need for a clear framework for the presentation of text, and a simple conversational style of writing so that these interactions are facilitated. Thereafter, the interpretation framework consists of a hierarchy of messages in decreasing importance: ones that we feel we must communicate, ones that we feel we should communicate and ones that we would like to communicate recognising that we expect a diminishing number of visitors to receive each level of messages.

    Clear directional signage and introductory texts at the entrance to each exhibition will assist geographical orientation and aid psychological orientation. A large clear title for each exhibit will orientate the visitor conceptually, and clear instructions for manipulating the exhibit provide an essential prerequisite for intellectual orientation. If the language used in labels is inappropriate for the visitor or if they cannot quickly work out what the exhibit is about, then the exhibit is likely to be rated as dull or boring, or even out of order.